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Flow Cytometry Reagents - Faqs

Questions pertaining to BioGems' line of Conjugated Flow Cytometry Antibodies, SAFIRE Functional Antibodies, Purified Monoclonal Antibodies, Flow Cytometry Buffers and Solutions, and Isotype Controls.
  • What do the application abbreviations stand for?
    • FC – Flow Cytometry FA - Functional Assay IHC – Immunohistochemistry IF - Immunofluorescence IP- Immunoprecipitation N – Neutralization WB- Western Blot
  • What does Biogems offer?
    • Biogems offers a wide comprehensive line of flow cytometry and recombinant protein reagents. We offer a wide range of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for the detection of cell surface markers and intracellular cytokines. We sell industry top selling products that are tested to be premium quality at economical prices.
  • How are quality controls established for different lots?
    • Biogems offers products that have consistent quality, purity, and performance across multiple lots. New lots are tested side-by-side with previous lots for consistency.
  • Why are some products listed by number of tests versus µg size?
    • The products listed by test size are titrated for optimal staining of a cell sample in a final volume of approximately 100 µL. The number of cells in a sample has a typical range of 1x10^5 to 1x10^8 cells. The products listed by µg size are based on a defined concentration as opposed to an optimal staining.
  • What epitope does the antibody bind to?
    • Biogems does not at this time perform epitope mapping. In some cases, relying on published research, this information may be listed on the datasheets for certain products
  • What if I want to use less cells or less volume in my sample that is recommended per test?
    • As long as the antibody concentration remains the same, you can use less cells or sample volume per test. If you decrease the sample volume to half the recommended, from 100 µL to 50 µL, you can halve the amount of antibody used. If you keep the recommended sample volume, but decrease the concentration of cells, then we recommend you still follow the recommended amount of antibody.
  • Can antibodies be frozen?
    • Freezing can denature the product and uncouple fluorochromes. The antibodies should be protected from light and stored at the recommended temperature listed for each product.
  • What controls should be used with the flow cytometry experiment?
    • We recommend isotype controls for each flow cytometry experiment and the recommended isotype control can be found on the product page. They retain the non-specific characteristics of the antibody used without the specific target cell binding. Therefore, Isotype controls are important to determine the background staining of an antibody. One can also measure the autofluorescence of a particular cell type with unstained cells.
  • How much or at what concentration should I use the isotype controls?
    • The amount or concentration of isotype controls should match used of the primary antibody. Since concentrations between isotype and primary antibodies vary, the same volume of the solutions may not contain equal amounts of antibody.
  • What is the purity of the antibodies?
    • The monoclonal antibodies are >90% pure as determined by SDS-PAGE.
  • What is the purpose of Tandem Dyes?
    • Tandem dyes are composed of two covalently attached fluorescent molecules. Through the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) principle, the tandem dye utilizes the excitation spectrum of the donor fluorochrome and the emission property of the acceptor molecule. This property allows for larger stokes shifts, the difference between the excitation and emission range.
  • What is Compensation and why is it important?
    • Fluochromes do not emit at distinct wavelengths but across emission spectrums. Compensation is the process of removing the overlapping spectral regions to eliminate false signals in multicolor staining panels.
  • For products with multiple clones, how should one choose between them?
    • We recommend basing your decision on a search on Google Scholar or Pubmed. These resources can help you research the popularity of these clones compared to each other for your relevant purposes.

Small Molecules - Faqs

Questions pertaining to BioGems' line of Small Molecules

ELISA KITS - Faqs

Questions pertaining to BioGems' line of Pre-Coated ELISA KITS.